Life Span and Development Flashcards

Choose the letter of the correct term or concept below to complete the sentence. A __________ is a subjective feeling provoked by real or imagined objects or events that have high significance to the individual. In a normal set up, infants have different reasons as to why they cry. Mostly, infants cry because they are uncomfortable or wet, they are unsettled, and they might be feeling hungry or are just crying to get pampered by their parents. Music also has an influence on stimulating and enhancing the senses of a child through self-expression.

Development of self-concept continues in elementary school, when children compare themselves to others. When the comparison is favorable, children feel a sense of competence and are motivated to work harder and accomplish more. stag and vixen Self-concept is re-evaluated in Erikson’s adolescence stage, as teens form an identity. They internalize the messages they have received regarding their strengths and weaknesses, keeping some messages and rejecting others.

Conceptual and empirical work in the past 15 years has shown that this adaptive capacity relies on self-regulation of motivational processes. The challenges individuals face as they develop from infants to adolescents, to adults, and into older age are challenges of selecting, adapting, and pursuing developmental and personal goals to reflect changing life-course opportunities. Regarding youths with academic problems, work is underway to investigate the effectiveness of interventions addressing goal setting and the use of primary and secondary control strategies. In sum, the development of optimization and control strategies opens a fascinating field of research that is far from exhausted. In particular, the development of secondary control strategies and the management of interphase transitions between goal engagement and disengagement are ripe for future investigation. Several studies show that individuals disengage from goals that are no longer attainable because of losses in control capacity related to aging, age-related societal opportunities, or illness and disability.

By the age of 12 months, children in the 50th percentile produced fewer than 10 words but understood close to 40. At 18 months, this gap persists; that is, while word production doubles to almost 20, comprehension reaches 60. It is interesting to note that similar findings have been reported for English-speaking toddlers . In a meta-analysis of the brain/language fMRI literature conducted by Vigneau et al. , phonological processing activation peaks were found in the left frontal lobe and the left temporal and inferior parietal areas. Whether due to illness or old age, not everyone facing death or the loss of a loved one experiences the negative emotions outlined in the Kübler-Ross model (Nolen-Hoeksema & Larson, 1999).

First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the action-phase model of developmental regulation with their original life-span theory of control to present a comprehensive theory of development.